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Posts Tagged ‘Plywood Lapstrake boatbuilding’

Over the weekend I took my Shearwater out to explore a new spot. Too often, I have taken my kayak or even the Shearwater out to familiar spots. There is nothing wrong with revisiting favorite spots, but its important to cover new ground, especially in a boat where there always seems to be some promise of adventure.

After spending some time on google maps and looking for boat ramps I decided to check out the Chinook Landing Marine Park. It is located about a mile west of where the Sandy river enters the Columbia. The put in was quiet and I got underway quickly under oars. The weather reports predicted light and variable winds so I had not even bothered to bring my sailing rig along. It would also have been a hindrance for parts of my intended journey. I had never checked out the spot where the Sandy river hits the Columbia and while looking at google maps, I had discovered a small channel running that split off from from about a mile up the Sandy to the Columbia well east of where most of the rivers meet. Seemed like a worth while channel to investigate.

The initial row upriver went well, working against the current, but with lovely weather and few other boats to contend with. The entrance to the Sandy lived up to its name. The mouth of the river was braided with various shallow islands interspersed. I ducked into the first channel I came to as much to get out of the current as anything, and promptly grounded. I proceeded to form and test a wide variety of conjectures as to which bank or sandy island I was too close to and where I would find deeper water, but the moral of the story is that I ended up walking my boat through shallow water much of the way over the mouth of the river before finding what could be called the main channel. The water was cold on my bare feet, but not unbearable. I found myself wondering how much time Lewis and Clark spent wading through water while dragging their various boats.

After finding the main channel I was able to row perhaps a quarter or half mile before grounding again. This time I didn’t have to walk my boat quite as far before finding deeper water. By this time I was definitely beginning to feel like a proper part-time adventurer by this point. After another 15 minutes of rowing up river, always keeping an eye on the depth of the sandy bottom I spotted a narrow side channel that led into the woods.

As I neared the channel I watched the river bottom become much more rocky and carefully maneuvered myself to where the current pulled me down into the side channel I had seen in the maps. It was narrow and I could see riffles in the surface down stream just before it ducked around a bend. I pointed my stern down the channel so that I could see where I was going and wondered what I would find.

I carefully watched the riffles and worked to stay in what seemed like the deepest portions while avoiding fallen trees as the narrow channel wound its way through bend after bend. Eventually it slowed and I found myself among a collection of low islands. I pulled my grandfathers binoculars out of their case to see what birds were around as I continued drifting stern down flow. I spotted a kingfisher which I always enjoy, but didn’t see too much else.

While I was drifting backwards, I found myself musing about the parallels between exploring new areas by boat and starting new endeavors in your life. I didn’t expect to find myself grounded so many times, and I didn’t know what would happen around each bend of the small channel I drifted backwards down. As I start a small business with an initial run of the chair I recently designed, there are so many unknowns. I’m not sure where it will lead or what all the challenges are that I will face. Thankfully, at the moment I am still doing a lot of teaching for the fabrication team at ADX and teaching with the boat school, so my current risk is limited. I’m also excited that with a bit of luck I will have a bit of space to keep more tools and chair parts at ADX which will help my productivity. At the moment, I am excited about my future prospects and proud of the work it has taken to get where I’m at. I’m excited to see what’s around the next bend. Along the way I’ll try to enjoy the view.

IMG_1489 IMG_1490 IMG_1493Look! Aquatic mammal!
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Mount Hood and the Columbia River Gorge in the distance. If you zoom in, you can see the Vista House.IMG_1496 My grandfathers binoculars.IMG_1491 All the rails, arm parts, and legs roughed out for 5 chairs.IMG_1499

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Before starting to share my newest endeavors involving chairs, I thought it would be good to share the end of the process building my Joel White designed Shearwater that I finished up at the end of the summer. Where I left off in early July the deck beams were fitted but not yet glued in. With those pieces glued in I decided to coat the interiors of the compartments in epoxy before painting. These were the only parts of the boat that I epoxy coated.IMG_0935 IMG_0933 With the deck beams glued in and trimmed flush with each other I started fitting the decks, thwarts and other interior details.IMG_0931With the boat upright, hardware in hand, and shaping on the oars proceeding well I had to mock things up. Keeps the imagination alive and motivation up!IMG_0929First primer on the boat! I used Interlux Pre-Kote for the priming and painted the interior with Interlux’s Brightside in Bristol Beige.
IMG_0936I managed to coax my twin brother into helping me assemble the trailer one weekend while he was down from Seattle. It went together easily, is light weight, and highly adjustable though I still need to trouble shoot why some of the less important lights don’t work.
IMG_0938 Paint inside the compartment.IMG_0939Here you can see the middle thwart sitting on the thwart supports and straddling the center frame. I took inspiration from Iain Oughtred’s designs and his book on lapstrake boat construction in many of the alterations I made to the design, and the tapering shape of the thwart supports are one example of this.IMG_0940 The finished trailer! Waiting for a boat.IMG_0942The slots for the mast and hatch cut out. I cut them out roughtly by drilling and using a jigsaw, but used a router with a flush trim bit to finish the job precisely.
IMG_0946 IMG_0947Here you can see the accent pieces I added to the inboard ends of the compartments which are rabbeted to sit down over the joint between the deck and the bulkhead. Their inboard edges are curved to follow the curve the thwarts which taper towards their outboard ends.
IMG_0953IMG_0956Ah, the mast partner. I built this fun little assembly out of Oregon White Oak to tie things together and reinforce the spot where the mast passes through the deck. It pleases me.IMG_0960Time to mask before painting! I tried to keep varnishing down to a reasonable level, and think I struck a reasonable ballance.
IMG_0963Whoa! That first coat of primer is always kind of exciting and shocking as the boat transforms.IMG_0964IMG_0965Here the interior paint is on and the initial coats of varnish are on the exterior. I couldn’t help myself on the stem and stern-post; all that lovely clear tight-grained fir! Varnish down to the waterline! Oh yea, and the shear strake. That got it too.
IMG_0968IMG_0969Flipped over again for final filling. fairing and sanding.IMG_0973With primer on the outside the varnish really started to pop.
IMG_0978-0Painted and ready for hardware. Here you can also see the brass half oval applied to the stem and most of the way down the keel.IMG_0981IMG_0984IMG_0985With painting complete it was time to invite friends over for a bbq for a defenestration/ oot-the-windae party! I would have more pictures of it going out the window, but it happened too damned fast! I could have built a boat which was at least an inch wider and deeper! Its always interesting to see how different a boat looks outside and sitting lower. I was struck by how shallow a boat it is!IMG_0990-0IMG_0989-0

IMG_0987IMG_0988-0After a weekend which included rowing the new boat several dozen miles, it was time to get down to work on the sailing rig. I couldn’t find any gudgeons which were relatively inexpensive or which wouldn’t have to be shipped from overseas, so I bought some brass ( I know, but realistically the boat will not be spending all that much time in salt water), and I got some help machining my own. Many thanks to David at Veteran Bicycle! Here they are partially shaped.IMG_0995Tapering and 8 siding the mast and spars was done initially with a power planer. So much noise and so many shavings in a short period of time! Final shaping to the lines was done with hand planes.
IMG_0994Gotta love 16 siding.IMG_0997Here the rudder with push-pull tiller is most of the way complete.IMG_0999With the sailing rig done it was time to head north for the Wooden Boat Festival in Port Townsend!IMG_1001

Parting shots! Maybe I should have taken more time to get to know my boat first, but it performed admirably on a its initial shake down trip starting in Cathlamet Washington and sailing back to Portland. I met up with Bruce and Kim on their respective Arctic Terns my first morning out, and we had a wonderful time, with following winds almost the entire trip.
IMG_1018 Sometimes you need to get a sense of scale for how large your boat really is. Thanks to Bruce for taking this shot!IMG_1028 A quiet and peaceful evening sail this past fall.IMG_1207 IMG_1204Having completed the boat, I couldn’t be happier. It is fun to row and sail. Its quick to rig and to put away. That being said it is a small boat. On several occasions when the wind and waves have started to build I’ve dropped sail and switched to oars. Every time I’ve done so I have been struck by how much things quiet down and by how well it rows even in fairly rough water. At some point I would like to build a larger sail and oar boat for adventures further afield in more open water, but for the time being I’m happy to get this boat out and to enjoy it as much as I can. Its also hard not to smile every time I pull the tarp back.

Please let me know if you have any questions regarding the nerdy details of the build. I’d be happy to answer!

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Inevitably, I’ve been distracted. Before getting down to business, allow me to illustrate why, and perhaps justify in part why I have been so tardy in sharing any progress on the Shearwater.

Back in early April, I became the lead instructor for the Wind and Oar Boat School. With that increase in responsibility came a decrease in personal boat building time. Check out a brief glimpse at what some of my classes have involved:

Building models with a group of middle school students at Cascade Heights Public Charter School. Don’t worry, it wasn’t all fun and games. Among other things I had them do a displacement estimate on an existing design for a sail and oar boat. I thought that was fun.20140704-185705-68225749.jpg

I had the pleasure of helping my high school students from Merlo High School finish an Arch Davis designed Penobscot 13:

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Fitting the oarlock sockets. 20140704-185837-68317437.jpg

Shaping the tiller.

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Post launch.
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Somewhere in there a lovely Bevin’s Skiff was built by a group of students from Southwest Charter School:20140704-185704-68224940.jpg

Currently I am working with a group of students at Jackson Middle School building another Bevin’s Skiff, and below are a few glimpses of the Arch Davis designed Sand Dollar being built by SEI students at ADX.
20140704-185839-68319817.jpg 20140721-225011-82211934.jpgSomehow, after teaching boat building to my students each day, I still enjoy going home to work on my own boat. At times, there has been less time left over than I would like, but considerable progress has certainly been made since my last update.

After the last update, the next pair of planks were patterned, scarfed and mounted. I got most of a final plank out of the 16 foot sheet previously scarfed, but the rest of the planks were scarfed together out of three pieces each to conserve plywood.

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After another round of beveling, the sheer strakes were finally patterned, scarfed, cut and mounted.

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With planking completed, my short-lived tiny plywood cathedral was complete.20140704-183733-67053449.jpg20140704-183734-67054309.jpgBefore the boat could be flipped over, the external keel,stem and sternpost were pieced together, fitted, shaped and mounted.20140704-183604-66964473.jpg20140704-183605-66965272.jpg

Finally, after many months of waiting, the boat was flipped over. The stem and sternpost were left quite long. They continue to be quite flamboyant in a viking-esque sort of way.

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With the boat upright, a variety of projects were started. Among the first was a complete redesign of the centerboard.

[Warning: the next section may be best reserved for only the nerdiest among you.] From my first look at the plans, I didn’t like the shape of the centerboard. It was a low aspect ratio wedge, and looked impossibly difficult to put a good foil shape on. Perhaps I should have kept in mind the thought another Shearwater builder shared with me, suggesting that the boat is quite tender and a sail rig would only be reasonable as a downwind rig. This idea would suggest I should have left well enough alone and not worried about upwind efficiency or doing my best to shape the board into a NACA 0012 foil shape. I suppose I must be stubborn or something, because I ignored those ideas. I embarked on a geometric journey far beyond what I ever expected. Who knew the geometry of a centerboard was so complicated? The brief explanation of the process is that I estimated the location of the center of lateral effort of the current centerboard (just the board, not the whole boat), and used this boat as the starting point of a new board. The length of the new board was limited by the location of the central frame, and the length limitations on the board helped dictate the width of the board, as my goal was to design the new board to have a similar area to the old design (theoretically, since it has a higher aspect ratio than the old design, it could be a bit smaller. I might have ended up making it a bit smaller, but not by more than 10%).

The board is built up of several long pieces of clear fir epoxied together. I worked to achieve a NACA 0012 foil section, and have subsequently fiberglassed it and filled the weave with epoxy thickened with graphite powder. In addition to being efficient it should be nearly bomb proof.

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20140704-184252-67372361.jpgAt some point work began on the spruce oars. Though I have picked at this project and they are a bit further along now than is shown below, they have not been a top priority. Their design is a combination of the design provided on the plans for the Shearwater and the shape of the Pete Culler oars described in Wooden Boat Magazine, issue 71.20140704-184249-67369981.jpg

Ah yes, back to the boat itself. The gunwales. The lower edge is cut to rise at a 20 degree bevel instead of being cut to a rectangular cross section. They also taper down in both their height and width as they reach the bow and stern. Gluing them on was an all clamps on deck sort of occasion.

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To further stabilize the shape and departing from the plans, I decided to add breasthooks in each end. The pieces were glued together with 10 degrees of camber. The centerboard trunk and also 20140704-184750-67670958.jpg

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The light used to highlight gaps between the breasthooks and sheer planks also create wonderfully dramatic ambiance to work in. I highly recomend it.20140704-185156-67916139.jpg

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The mast step goes together in an example of “how many clamps can you fit in a small space?” The mast step also supports the sides and back of a mast trunk because the mast will be stepped through the deck of the forward watertight compartment.20140704-185157-67917041.jpg

Oh look, my trailer is here! 4 boxes, with one more to come. Some assembly required. I decided to bite the bullet and get a brand new SUT-250-S from Trailex. Included in this decision were the fact that the lightweight trailer would put less stress on my car, it would be better suited to carrying a lightweight boat, and whenever I end up selling the boat it may increase resale value. I thought about trying to get a used trailer, but the thought of dealing with repacking bearings or perhaps dealing with old wiring seemed like concerns I didn’t want the hassle of dealing with.20140704-185157-67917901.jpg

The bulkheads getting fitted along with deck framing. I decided to go with fairly large rectangular hatches to improve access to the compartments under the decks.20140704-185304-67984848.jpg

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Oh yes, and somewhere in there I had the pleasure of being able to assist a former professional sailmaker, as he assembled my lovely little sail. It looks awesome, and I can’t wait to see it hauled up my mast (which isn’t built yet)!20140704-183235-66755003.jpg20140704-183235-66755787.jpg20140704-185707-68227289.jpgAt this point things are looking slightly different almost every single day. The framing for the decks is nearly all fitted. As soon as those pieces are glued, I’ll be ready to fillet the joints, coat the interior of the compartments, and to paint the inside of the compartments before the decks go on. The slot for the centerboard is cut and the centerboard trunk is nearly ready to install. I’m getting ready to put the supports for the thwarts in. I’ll try to post updates more regularly as things progress. With summer progressing entirely too quickly, my current goal is to get it ready for rowing as soon as possible, with the sail rig soon to follow. Wish me luck!

Oh, one last thing: If you have any super nerdy questions, feel free to ask away. I skipped over many details of the process, but would be glad to share more information if anyone is interested.

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With beveling done, and stock for the garboards scarfed, there was only one thing to do: Start patterning the first planks! I decided to use a variation of the method described by Ross Lillistone in the most recent Wooden Boat (Wooden Boat 237). The long battens were cut from a, 18 foot 1×3 of CVG fir, and their final dimensions were about 3/4″ by 3/8″. I clamped one along the keel, following its centerline for as far as it could without needing to put excessive force into it. I then clamped a second one with its outer edge following the first chine location on each frame, and through the lap locations specified on the stem and stern post. With the clamps in place, I started connecting them with small dimension pine and 1″ screws.

20140406-103147.jpgHere, the pattern is mostly finished, though additional pieces were added later to extend the triangles past the end of the boat.

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With the pattern nearly finished, I needed help maneuvering the 16 foot by 4 foot sheet of plywood around, and blocking it off the ground to cut the first plank. I called up some friends, and was able to get some much needed assistance from Bruce over at Terrapin Tales, and from my friend Alex. We traced the pattern on the plywood so that the outside of the scarf would point towards the back of the boat, blocked it off the ground with scraps of 2×4, and cut it out. Here it is dryfit before being trimmed down to the lines. We flipped it over and tested it on the other side of the boat, and I was glad to find out that it seemed to fit well enough to trace and cut the second plank from the first one.

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After cutting both planks, I planned the outboard edges of each plank down to the shape dictated by the pattern, but left the outer edge rough cut. I dryfit each plank individually, traced the center of the keel on the inside of the plank, and then planned the part overlapping the keel down to shape. During a final dryfit, I double checked that the plank did not go over the center line, and used my recently revived Stanley 78 to trim the few spots that did go over the centerline.

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With that it was time to install the first two planks! It took a few days to find the time to do it ( It ended up taking considerably longer than expected, and we ended up being late for evening plans. Sorry Simeon), but on Saturday I was able to get the assistance of my lovely girlfriend Liz, and we got the first two planks glued on! All the screws I am using are temporary, and I used thin blocks under their heads to distribute pressure, and so I don’t dimple the surface of the plywood.

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The following day I spent some time in odd positions under the boat cleaning up the few spots with excess epoxy outside of the joints. The spots would be easier to reach after the boat is flipped, but I wanted to hit everything before it gets any harder. Though our clean up of the joints was a bit rushed, I was pretty happy with how everything looked.

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After cleaning up excess epoxy I began work on beveling the garboards for the next set of planks. because the frames are permanent, and the angle of the lap changes, the width of the bevel is not a constant angle. On the plans it seemed to vary between about 3/4″ and 1″, so I drew lines at those two distances from the edge to help guide me between frames, and set myself to work. As I continue beveling I may bend a batten around the next chine to help guide me.

Either way, it won’t be long before I am pulling the first pattern apart and can pattern the broad strakes! At that point I’ll need to consider whether I want to scarf planks together individually, or whether I’ll make up another 16 foot sheet. I’m also hoping the next planks will also come out under 16 feet long so that they can be made out of two pieces, but I’ll just have to wait and see. Either way, I’m having so much fun watching this thing come together! I’m hoping to have it in the water by May 17 for the Pull and Be Damned Messabout. It may be a bit optimistic, but I’m going to have to get spars going and figure out how I’m getting the sail made soon if I’m going to make it. Wish me luck!

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Naturally, once the keelson with the stem and sternpost were glued on I had to spring a batten through the shearline, bend over, and look at the shear with my head upside down. With the batten sprung through the locations on each frame dictated by the lofting, the shearline looked quite fair. With that out of the way, I thought I was just about ready to begin planking. You know, beveling and scarfing had to happen first, but the planks would be flying on within a day or two, right? Well, it turns out beveling takes time, and though I might have wished it had taken less time, I get the distinct impression that it it time well spent. I broke out two bevel squares, a sharp one inch chisel, my Stanley number 4, and set to work.

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After many hours of moving the batten from chine to chine, just above a chine to below a chine, springing the batten back around spots to double check my work, and finding the proper angle to work each various spot of grain on each frame, pieced together stem or stern post, keelson and bulkhead, the beveling is done.20140328-113008.jpg

Beveling the number 2 and number 4 frames provided a distinct satisfaction as the lamination lines showed up as these wonderfully nested eliptic curves within each angled facet of the curved frames. The juxtaposition of the angular beveling, which reminded me of the facets on a finely cut jewel, with the curves of the inner surface and the lamination lines on the facets is really beautiful, and was a very pleasant surprise.

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Working the curve of the step and stern posts was also an interesting challenge, and I’m pleased with the results. I found that starting with a sharp chisel for heavier removal of matterial, followed by smoothing the curve with a sharp plane to be a fairly efficient method. Depending on the grain and angle I was working at I would often return to the chisel for finishing touches.20140328-112641.jpg

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Somewhere in there I also scarfed the wood for the garboards. It also turns out that with everything set up, its hard to create 16 feet of length within the shop. I planed the three inch scarfs down, starting with my Stanley number 4 and fine tuning the surfaces with my old Stanley number 6. Its a good thing 3/8 inch plywood is as flexible as it is, otherwise I don’t know how I would have glued it together, but I managed.

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20140328-113112.jpgSomewhere along the way I started thinking about my future need to plane the gains in the planks and my lack of a suitable rabbet plane. Well, not entirely true. I have rabbet planed available to borrow from the Wind and Oar Boat School, and there was also that old Stanley 78 hidden in the back of a drawer that I had. Hidden because it was too shameful to look at. At some point as a kid I acquired it, including the old Sweetheart Stanley 78 including depth stop and fence, but I never had many uses for it at the time. It spent a long period of time in a wooden box, and at some point that box attracted some moisture, and somewhere over the intervening years almost every surface without the black paint proceeded to rust. It was painful to look at and I didn’t know how to fix it, and apparently didn’t have the incentive to do so until now.

Last weekend I was talking with a guy while working on the Crosby Catboat owned by the Wind and Oar Boat School. He suggested using a toilet bowl cleaning product called “The Works.” So I tried it. I dismantled the old plane, and put it into a solution of water and this product. After about a half hour I started removing pieces and scrubbing them down with a wire bristled brush. Bit by bit the rust started coming off. With just a few hours work, the old plane is no longer something I need to feel ashamed of! Too keep the parts from rusting again, I quickly dried all the pieces in a toaster oven set to the lowest temperature and rubbed them all down with a fine coating of grease. I sharpened the blade, reassembled the whole thing, and it looks ready to begin cutting gains!

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Gotta love the old script used for the Stanley logo on this vintage of the Stanley 78. Anyone know for which years they were marked this way? It doesn’t have the blade adjustment lever, but the blade does have the heart logo on it.20140328-112908.jpg

Next step: Patterning planks!

 

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Its been a long time since I posted, and one of the reasons is that I have wanted to share some memories and thoughts about my grandfather. He passed away in early February at 96 years old. For the time being, suffice it to say that he inspired much of my love for the outdoors and interest in the natural environment. I think of him when I out hiking, backcountry skiing, or kayaking, and he will be missed.

For the moment however, I would like to take a moment to provide an update on the Shearwater, because resumed after the whales went on display, and I want to have it ready for the coming summer! Being off of crutches as well as back in matching footwear has helped progress considerably! Though I may not be as much further along as I would like, things are quite different in the basement, and I feel like momentum is building!

Last time I posted an update, I was still laminating frames. All the frames have since been completed, with laminations cleaned up, and filler blocks added to complete the shape of each frame. They were mounted on 1×2 pine crosspieces in order to be attached to the strongback. Its always so tempting to start setting pieces up before you can actually put them together.

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The keel was cut, and stems built up. Instead of laminating the stems, because I don’t particularly like laminating things, I decided to build the stem and stern post out of three pieces each. The pieces for the stem can be seen laid out below. I cut them out wide, planed the laps down to shape, but left the rest of the shaping for after gluing and planing down to thickness.

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Plywood stations were cut for near the bow and stern. Here I am deviating from Joel White’s plans. He suggests building the boat completely open with diagonal ‘rangs’ in the bow and stern. I decided early on that I wanted watertight compartments in the bow and stern instead. To make sure I am still supporting the shape near the ends I decided to build the boat with vertical plywood stations. The lower half of these stations will become permanent bulkheads inside of the compartments, while the upper part, which has already been partially cut off for convenience, will be removed (Dovetail tape? Really? Yes, it was all I could find, but where did it even come from?). The plywood is very thin, so I added additional blocks to provide clamping surfaces or thickness for screwing if needed.

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The keel, stem and stern post were glued together. All the pieces of each are cvg fir that has been planed down to an inch and a quarter in thickness.

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Once the backbone was fully assembled, it was time to lift the lofting off the floor and to build the strongback! Its great to finally have the drawings off of the floor. They were driving me a bit nuts! Joseph helped me build a 13′ 10″ ladder frame out of 2x4s for the strongback, which was topped with 3/4 inch particle board. The frames were mounted, and braced square. After checking some final measurements, and a few adjustments with a chisel, I got the keel glued to the frames. The boat is finally taking something more than a two dimensional shape!

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My bracing may be overkill, and I’m okay with that.20140319-232330.jpg20140319-232352.jpg

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As soon as I scarf a some plywood, and bevel the keel and frames, planking can begin! Yippee!

Oh, and I called my landlord. I now actually have his permission to remove the window that will have to come out when the boat is completed. I’m pretty happy about that.

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After some debate about what boat to build next, I decided to build the very elegant Shearwater by Joel White. Several considerations went into settling on this design; not the least of which was the fact that I will need to get it out of a window that is only 4’7″ wide and 22″ tall. Never mind that the window currently has a few bars over it and isn’t set up to open. It will. I thought about renting a space and working to build a larger and more capable beach cruising sail and oar boat( perhaps Tirrik or the Arctic Tern?), but given current budget constraints I decided to stick to something smaller that I could build at home and with just a bit of luck even have completed for spring sailing( In my experience life can have a way of slowing down the process in unexpected ways). I also like being able to wander down to the basement to pick away at the process whenever I’ve got a spare couple minutes.

Looking over the plans it looks like it will be a fun build. It does not have many pieces. Only three planks per side and minimal frames. It also has some unusual details such as the ‘rangs’- the diagonal frames at each end of the boat. The plans look thorough, even though there are not step-by-step instructions included. When needed I’ll probably first consult Ultralight Boatbuilding by Tom Hill or the Clinker Plywood Boatbuilding Manual by Iain Oughtred.

Looking over the plans, I saw that most of the frames will be laminated fir, so before I even begin building the strongback, I’ll have a fair bit of laminating to do for both the frames as well as the stems. As pieces start coming together, I’ll keep my progress posted. Also, for anyone out there who has built one, I’d love to hear from you, and to hear if there were any steps of the process to look out for!

imageIf you zoom in and read the text closely, you will be able to see where Joel White tells you not to drill pilot holes through your fingers.

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